Tuberculosis is the major second cause of death from infectious diseases in the developing countries (first cause is HIV). Almost one third of world population has been infected with this tuberculosis and number of cases are increasing at the rate of one per two second. The WHO (World Health Organization) counted that 9 million people a year infected with TB, and 3 million of these “unrecognized” by health systems due to lack of contact between the community and primary health unit. This infectious disease is occurred due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. It spread through airborne droplets from person to person. This bacteria mainly attack the lungs but can also spread to other parts of body. Mycobacterium do not only produces the tuberculosis but also produces other diseases which are mostly asymptomatic.
In this type causative agent resides in the body in inactive state and do not produce any disease. It may active and produce the disease when person become immuno compromised. Infection still remains in body and become ACTIVE later in life.
This type is most common occurring. In this type mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria infect the lungs and produces infectious disease that is known as pulmonary tuberculosis. Bacteria’s are continued to multiply. In this type person is at risk to transmit the disease to others.
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES?
- Tuberculosis is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. It is highly contagious disease. It can transmit from person to person by airborne droplets. Untreated person can transmit it to others by sneezing, spitting, coughing, talking, laughing and singing.
It also occurs due to
- Drug abuse
- Poor hygiene
- Also Age related
- AIDS or immuno compromised patients
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF TB?
Primarily some symptoms are appeared which give a hint of having this disease. Most common symptoms are
- A worst cough that lasts 3 weeks or longer
- Weight loss
- Loss of appetite
- Blood or mucus containing cough
- Weakness or fatigue
- Fever in fluctuations
- Night sweats are a major clue
- Chest pain
HOW IS TB DIAGNOSED?
If a person gets these symptoms (night sweats,fever, cough) form mild to moderate range then go for your medical examination. This infectious disease is diagnosed by following ways:
- Asking medical history
- Conduct a physical exam to check for fluid in lungs
- Proper schedule a chest X-ray to confirm pulmonary TB
- To confirm the diagnosis SPUTUM CULTURE is done (for latent infections)
- PCR is also done for further evaluation
- CT scan for lungs
- Lung biopsy
- Tuberculin skin testing (Mantoux test)
This is very easy and effective method to diagnose the tb. This test shows whether a person have been in contact with mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria at some point in life or not. It cannot differentiate between a current active infection and late infection. The tuberculin is made from part of the TB bacterium. It is injected into the skin of a person and observe it after a few days. At injection site there is marked reddens and swelling which mean a man has active infection or have had an infection.
Sometime the result may be falsely negative for some people with TB infection – for those who have AIDS or a poor immune system.
WHO ARE AT HIGH RISK IN A COMMUNITY?
- Immunocompromised people are at high risk of developing the infection by mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. A healthy immune system fights the TB bacteria. But if you are having anyone of the following condition, you are unable to fight against this bacteria.
- HIV or AIDS
- Low body weight
- Head and neck Cancer
- Transplanting drugs
- Cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy
- Low body weight
- Other medication use
- Poor housing
- Improper sanitation system
- people live in groups
- military camps are also at risk
HOW TB IS TREATED?
TB should treat as earlier as possible. Although it takes a long time almost nine months to recover but any negligence or compliance can cause the resistance against medications and person may suffer from MULTIDRUG RESISTANT TB.
Tb of any type latent or active can be cured or recovered.
A doctor can recommend you to direct approach to DOTs (directly observe therapy). In this organization, a health care professional meets with the tb patient on daily basis or three to four times a week. To administer the medications and a reminder to those patients who are compliance is also a responsibility of DOTs.
The common medication of TB are
- Ethambutol (Myambutol)
Schedule is first recommend the INH, pyrazinamide and rifampin for 6 months then discontinue the pyrazinamide and suggest the ethambutol for next three months.
PREVENTION of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Bacteria
People with latent TB are not contagious and are not a risk factor for others. They can go about their day-to-day lives as usual. Because bacteria is in inactive state.
But if a person have developed the infectious disease by mycobacterium tuberculosis, then ask the patient to stay home and avoid close contact with others. Avoid to talk with others. Doctor will tell them you are no longer contagious and can resume a regular routine because it is curable and recoverable.